Source: Rukzio (2010)
Object identification is a key challenge in ubiquitous annotation. Rukzio (2007) gives an overview of common and not-so common technologies that can be used to identify objects and places and to discover and interact with related digital services. Various other technologies have since been explored in the context of object identification and/or communication with mobile devices.
Source: Harrison, Xiao and Hudson(2012)
Harrison, Xiao and Hudson (2012) developed Acoustic Barcodes, structured patterns of notches on a small plastic strip which produce a complex sound when swiped with something hard, e.g. a fingernal or mobile phone, that can be resolved to a binary ID. Acoustic tags are cheap to produce, don’t consume power and offer simple interaction.
Chirp.io (2012) uses sound to transmit data in “tiny pieces of music” without the need to pair devices beforehand. As sound travels only so far, the technology can be used to identify objects and locations. Speakers can be cheaply integrated with almost any material and today’s mobile phones have speakers and microphones as standard.
The latest technology to come to market (backed by Apple, Google and Nokia) is Bluetooth 4.0 aka Bluetooth LE aka BLE, a low-power version of the classic Bluetooth that “allows one device (the Proximity Monitor) to detect whether another device (the Proximity Reporter) is within a close physical range.” (Source: Wikipedia). Proximity-based applications of BLE include Estimote Beacons, Texas Intrument’s SensorTags and Apple’s iBeacon.
- Chirp.io (2012) http://chirp.io/
- Harrison, C., Xiao, R. and Hudson, S.E. (2012). Acoustic Barcodes: Passive, Durable and Inexpensive Notched Identification Tags. Proceedings of UIST ’12, October 7–10, 2012, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
- Rukzio, E. (2007) Physical Mobile Interactions: Mobile Devices as Pervasive Mediators for Interactions with the Real World. PhD Dissertation. Faculty for Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics. University of Munich.
- Rukzio, E. (2010). Mobile interaction with the real world. Lecture Slides. Lancaster University. Available http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/~rukzio/mobilehci2009tutorials/Rukzio_MobileInteractionWithTheRealWorld.pdf